Education in the Kingdom is based on the British school system and includes primary (Grades 1-7), secondary (Forms 1-3) and high school (Forms 4-5). course offered at school include geography, mathematics, science, siSwati, English, religious education, agriculture and business studies, although schools in Mbabane and Manzini often offer subjects as diverse as French and music. All students learn English beginning in Grade 3, though many people in the rural areas, particularly the elderly, communicate only in siSwati. Because of high school fees and because progression is based on passing a series of exams, many children in Eswatini do not complete school beyond Grade 7.
Since the early 1990s, the Kingdom of Eswatini has been plagued by a number of development issues, the most significant of which is HIV/AIDS. In addition to having the highest rate of HIV in the world (42.6% of pregnant women), it also has one of the highest rates of Tuberculosis in the world. Economically, theKingdom has very few natural resources or indigenous industries, relying largely on South Africa for imports and employment. Since 2000, the country has also been stricken by drought conditions that have created a long-term food security problem, particularly in the eastern portion of the country. For these reasons, many international and non-governmental organisations maintain a presence in the country.